Darrell Figgis

Darrell Edmund Figgis (Irish: Darghal Figes; 17 September 1882 – 27 October 1925) was an Irish writer, Sinn Féin activist and independent parliamentarian in the Irish Free State. The little that has been written about him has attempted to highlight how thoroughly his memory and works have been excised from Irish popular culture.

Darrell Figgis was born at Rathmines in Dublin, but while he was still an infant his family emigrated to Calcutta in India. There his father worked as an agent in the tea business, founding A W Figgis & Co. They returned when Darrell was ten years of age, though his father continued to spend much of his time in India.
As a young man he worked in London at the tea brokerage owned by his uncle and it was at this time that he began to develop his interest in literature and literary criticism.
In 1910 Figgis, with the help of G. K. Chesterton who wrote the introduction to his first book of verse, joined the Dent publishing company. For much of his time with Dent, Figgis resided at 42 Asmuns Hill Hampstead Gardens in London. He moved to Achill Island in 1913 to write, learn Irish and (like others of the Gaelic Revival) gain an appreciation of Irish culture, as perceived by many of his contemporaries to uniquely exist on the western seaboard. On his detention following the Easter Rising, he and the publishing house ‘parted company’. Subsequently he established his own firm in which he republished the works of William Carleton and others.
Figgis joined the Irish Volunteers in Dublin in 1913 and organised the original Battalion of Volunteers in Achill, where he had built a house. While in London, he was contacted by The O’Rahilly, who acquainted him with the arms dealers who had supplied the Ulster Volunteers. In this way he became part of the London group that discussed the financing and supply of German rifles for the Volunteers. This group of gun-runners included Molly and Erskine Childers, Mary Spring Rice, Alice Stopford Green and Sir Roger Casement. He travelled with Erskine Childers, initially to Belgium and from there to Germany to make the purchase of the army surplus Mauser rifles. Figgis then chartered the tug Gladiator, from which the arms were transferred at sea to the Childers’ yacht Asgard and Conor O’Brien’s Kelpie. As well as the Childers and Spring Rice, Asgard was crewed by Captain Gordon Shephard of the Royal Flying Corps, and Patrick McGinley and Charles Duggan, two fishermen from Gola Island, Donegal.
At this time the Royal Navy was patrolling the Irish Sea in anticipation of imminent war with Germany, and Figgis was tasked with taking a motor boat to Lambay Island to signal to the Asgard the all-clear. By his own account, he was unable to persuade the skipper of the pilot vessel to put to sea as one of the worst storms in many years had been raging. Due to luck and the skill of the crews, the three over-laden yachts arrived at their destinations. Figgis, accompanied by Seán McGarry, watched Asgard helplessly from Howth pier until Erskine, with Molly at the helm, decided to take a calculated risk and sailed into the harbour. Against the odds, the conspiracy with Casement, Eoin MacNeill and Bulmer Hobson to buy rifles in Germany and land them safely in Ireland had succeeded. A large party of Volunteers, on their way to Dublin with rifles and ammunition was confronted by a detachment of the King’s Own Scottish Borderers and Dublin Metropolitan Police. With their route blocked, Figgis and Thomas MacDonagh engaged the officers in an attempt to distract them. Figgis gave much of the credit for co-ordinating the quiet dispersal of the Volunteers with their contraband to “Commandant Kerrigan, a former soldier.”
Although he did not participate in the 1916 Easter Rising, Figgis was arrested and interned by the British authorities between 1916 and 1917 in Reading Gaol. His wife Millie wrote to The New Age, detailing her husband’s conditions in jail and what she saw as the excessively broad terms by which he was interned under the Defence of the Realm Act 1914. After his release, Figgis returned to Ireland. At the 1917 Sinn Féin Ardfheis he and Austin Stack were elected Honorary Secretaries of the party. The conference saw Éamon de Valera replace Arthur Griffith as President of the party. Griffith and Michael O’Flanagan became Vice-Presidents. Two Honorary Treasurers were also elected, W. T. Cosgrave and Laurence Ginnell. This duality of offices reflected the coalition nature of Sinn Féin between those of the constitutional tradition, and those who advocated a more militarist approach. Shortly after, Figgis was one of four recently released internees who travelled to the South Longford constituency to campaign for Joseph McGuinness in the by-election caused by the death of John Phillips. The overwhelming victory of the Sinn Féin candidate over the Irish Parliamentary Party nominee marked the beginning of the eclipse of the latter party by the former party. In May 1918, Figgis was arrested for his alleged part in the spurious German Plot a second time and again deported to England. In 1918, he became editor of the newspaper The Republic.
From September 1919 to 1921 Figgis headed the Commission of Inquiry into the Resources and Industries of Ireland. At this time a serious rift between Figgis and Michael Collins, then Minister for Finance, became a matter of public record. This close attention of Collins would pursue Figgis in his later activities on the Constitution Committee.
While Figgis was participating in a Dáil Court at Carrick on Shannon, the proceedings were interrupted by a British Army raid. An officer named Captain Cyril Crawford summarily “condemned” Figgis and Peadar Kearney to be hanged. He ordered rope for the purpose, but another officer intervened and Keaney and Figgis were set free.
Figgis supported the Anglo-Irish Treaty. He was extremely critical of the Collins/De Valera Pact for the June 1922 elections which was an attempt to avoid a split in the Sinn Féin party and, more importantly, in the IRA. On 25 May 1922 he attended a meeting of the executive council of the Farmers’ Union and representatives of business interests, and encouraged them to put forward candidates in constituencies where anti-Treaty candidates might otherwise have headed the poll. As Figgis was a member of the Sinn Féin Ard Chomhairle National Executive at the time, he was expelled from the party. This contravention of policy must be assessed in the light of the flagrant breaches of the terms of the Truce that were a daily occurrence at the time. These were an unambiguous indication that the IRA was not under the control of Dáil Éireann and efforts at party unity were to a certain extent cosmetic.
“Never a time went by without a bit of fun. Such an occasion was the degrading of Darrell Figgis…You should see him strolling down O’Connell Street in smartly cut clothes, with his red hair gleaming like newly polished boots, and a fine, red, square-cut beard that was his special pride. Now Figgis started making some very detrimental remarks about the IRA. We did not consider him a menace, he was too much the lightweight but he annoyed us with his waspish stings…Some of us held him tipped back on his swivel chair while one man produced a glittering razor. Figgis squealed like a pig …I think he would have been happier had we just cut his throat.”
On 13 June 1922, Dublin newspapers carried reports of an assault on Darrell Figgis which involved the cutting of his beard. The Evening Herald reported that shortly before midnight, Millie Figgis had answered a knock at the door. Three men rushed past her seeking out her husband. Mrs. Figgis, fearing that they intended to shoot him, pushed into the room and attempted to lock it but was prevented from doing so by the intruders. The paper went on to say that “Mrs. Figgis is suffering severely from shock”. Details of the attack remained vague until one of those responsible broke his silence 36 years later.
This was future Lord Mayor of Dublin, Robert Briscoe, at the time of this disclosure the most prominent and respected politician from the Jewish community in Ireland. A less than sympathetic attitude to the attack was not confined to Anti-Treatyites. In a letter to Collins on 13 June, his fiancée Kitty Kiernan wrote the following:
“Poor Darrell Figgis lost his nice red beard. When I read about it I could imagine you laughing and enjoying it very much. But it was a mean thing for Harry’s cronies to do, wasn’t it? Funny, this ages I’ve been expecting that something might happen to Figgis (from reading papers). He was lucky it was only his beard.”
Soon after the signing of the Treaty, the necessity of quickly drafting a constitution for the proposed Free State became apparent. It was intended by Arthur Griffith that Figgis would chair the Constitution Committee, but this proposal was vetoed by Collins who nominated himself for the position specifically to minimise Figgis’ influence. The animosity between Collins and Figgis remained an undercurrent of the project and in Collins’ absence after the inaugural gathering, James G. Douglas, a Collins nominee, kept him briefed of developments by detailed weekly meetings. Douglas, who in his memoirs admitted his dislike for Figgis, brought with him onto the committee James McNeill, Clement J. France and R.J.P Mortished who had worked closely with him at the Irish White Cross thus consolidating further Collins’ control. The mutual animosity between Figgis and Douglas stemmed from the early days of the Irish White Cross. Darrell Figgis had sought nomination as its Secretary. Douglas backed McNeill. In the end, Collins decided the job should go to Captain David Robinson but this did nothing to heal the Figgis-Douglas rift.[citation needed]
In the 1922 and 1923 general elections he ran and was elected an independent Teachta Dála (member of parliament) for the Dublin County constituency.
While still a TD, he stood in the 1925 election to Seanad Éireann, where he polled only 512 first preferences.
In December 1923, it was decided that a committee be established to investigate the means by which a public radio broadcasting service should be operated in the Free State. A central issue of contention was whether the service should be run and controlled directly by the State or operated commercially by an Irish Broadcasting Company. The latter option, it was suggested, would follow the model adopted in the UK by the establishment of the BBC. Figgis was co-opted onto the committee, and this decision led to a series of allegations resulting in the new State’s first corruption scandal of which Figgis himself was the focus.
A former business associate of Figgis, Andrew Belton, sent a letter to J.J. Walsh the Postmaster General. Walsh’s own preferences for a private syndicate

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, which would include Belton and business acquaintances from Cork, together with his personal animosity towards Figgis, were evident from the outset. In the letter leaked by Walsh, Belton stated that Figgis had promised to use his political influence to assist him to gain government contracts. The accusation resulted in Figgis resigning from the Broadcasting committee and a second enquiry being launched to investigate these new allegations.
Figgis strenuously denied any impropriety, claiming they were motivated by personal animosity when Belton’s expectations of preferential treatment were unfulfilled. Belton’s apparent connections with senior finance and political figures in London, including Lord Beaverbrook, were also matters of considerable disquiet.
Throughout his political career, Figgis’ lobbying for remuneration was a constant source of resentment by his immediate colleagues. Many of them however, received income from their positions within the administration, or from private practice or both. The fact that Michael Collins, in his ministerial capacity, kept all official expenditure under minute scrutiny ensured that any transactions involving Figgis were subject to particularly detailed monitoring by Finance officials.[citation needed]
On 18 November 1924, Figgis’ wife Millie committed suicide using a Webley revolver given to them by Collins following the 1922 assault. According to the inquest, she shot herself in the head in the back of a taxi in Rathfarnham, having previously ordered the driver to take her to the Hellfire Club. Two bullets in the gun were discharged. She was taken to the Meath Hospital and pronounced dead. A bloodstained suicide letter was handed by the Matron to Figgis when he arrived there. In her letter, Mrs. Figgis expressed her sorrow for the pain her action would cause to her husband and referred to injuries and depression arising from the 1922 attack. She was buried at Mount Jerome Cemetery, Dublin.
A year later, Figgis’ new love, Rita North, died, due to medical difficulties apparently following an attempted abortion. Her body was brought back from London and she was buried by her family at Glasnevin Cemetery. Figgis himself committed suicide in a London boarding-house, just a week after giving evidence at Rita’s inquest. He had been staying at the Royal Automobile Club until the day before his death, as was usual when he visited London. A small group of mourners comprising close family and friends attended his interment at the West Hampstead Cemetery.
The by-election caused by his death was won by William Norton of the Labour Party.

Attorney at law

Attorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday speech to attorney, is the preferred term for a practising lawyer in certain jurisdictions, including South Africa (for certain lawyers), Sri Lanka, and the United States. In Canada, it is used only in Quebec

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. The term has its roots in the verb to attorn, meaning to transfer one’s rights and obligations to another.

The term was historically used in the jurisdictions of England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland. The title has been replaced by solicitor, but still appears in old statutes, in these jurisdictions.
The term was also used in England and Wales for lawyers who practised in the common law courts. They were officers of the courts and were under judicial supervision. Solicitors, those lawyers who practised in the courts of equity, were considered to be more respectable than attorneys and by the mid-19th century many attorneys were calling themselves solicitors. In 1873, the Supreme Court of Judicature Act abolished the term “attorney”, and attorneys were redesignated solicitors. Attorneys did not generally actually appear as advocates in the higher courts, a role reserved (as it still usually is) for barristers.
In England and Wales, references in any enactment to attorneys must be construed as references to solicitors of the Senior Courts.
In both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, various pre-partition statutes dealing with the whole of Ireland and governing court structures, procedures, and court officers remain in force, such as the Supreme Court of Judicature Act (Ireland) 1877.
References in any statutory provision in force in Northern Ireland to attorneys must be construed as references to solicitors of the Court of Judicature.
In the Republic of Ireland, references in any enactment to an attorney (or proctor) are to be construed as a reference to a solicitor.

Alfred-Henri-Amand Mame

Alfred-Henry-Armand Mame (b. at Tours, 17 August 1811; d. at Tours, 12 April 1893) was a French printer and publisher.

The founder of the Mame firm, Charles Mame, printed two newspapers at Angers in the last quarter of the eighteenth century; General Hoche had at one time hoped to marry his daughter. His eldest son, bookseller and publisher in Paris, under the First Empire, edited Chateaubriand’s famous opuscule, “Buonaparte et les Bourbons”, also Madame de Staël’s works; and the persecutions directed against these books by the Napoleonic police caused the financial ruin of the editor. But the third son, Amand Mame, came to Tours and founded there a firm which, under the management of Alfred Mame

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, son of Amand, was destined to become very important.
Paul Mame (1833–1903), a son of Alfred, was the head of the firm until 1900.
After having edited, together with his cousin Ernest Mame, from 1833 to 1845, some classics and a few devotional books, Alfred conceived and carried out, for the first time, the idea of uniting in the same publishing house, a certain number of workshops, grouping all the industries connected with the making of books: printing, binding, selling, and forwarding. By analogy with the great ironworks of Le Creusot, the Mame firm has been called the literary “Creusot”.
Mame was also one of the principal owners of the paper-mills of La Haye-Descartes; and it could thus be said that a book, from the time when the rags are transformed into paper up to the moment when the final binding is put on, passed through a succession of workers, all of whom were connected with Mame. Daily, as early as 1865, this publishing house brought out from three to four thousand kilograms of books; it employed seven hundred workers within and from four hundred to five hundred outside.
Inspired by the social Catholic ideal, Alfred Mame established for his employees a pension fund for those over sixty, wholly maintained by the firm. He opened schools, which caused him to receive one of the ten thousand francs awards reserved for the “établissements modèles où régnaient au plus haut degré l’harmonie sociale et le bien-être des ouvriers”. n 1874 Mame organized a system by which his working-men shared in the profits of the firm.
It put into circulation books of devotion, and published the Bibliothèque de la jeunesse chrétienne. La Touraine was exhibited at the Universal Exhibition of 1855, and was in its day one of the finest of illustrated books. There were the Bible with illustrations from Gustave Doré; Vétault’s Charlemagne; Wallon’s St. Louis; the Chefs d’oeuvres de la langue française. Quantin, the publisher, calculated that, in 1883, the Mame publishing-house issued yearly six million volumes, of which three million were bound.
At one time he tried but unsuccessfully to enter political life; at the election of 14 Oct., 1877, he presented himself in the first district of Tours as candidate for the Chamber of Deputies, on the conservative side, against Belle, the republican deputy who had founded in Tours the first lay school for girls. Mame was defeated, having 7456 votes, against 12,006 obtained by Belle.

xApps

xApp (SAP AG Composite Application), is a collective term applied to software products built following the SAP xApps convention and running on a SAP NetWeaver application server. Including a range of software products from SAP AG

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, solutions by SAP partners and customer made composite applications. xApps are commonly targeted at specific industries or are geared towards vertical applications common across a range of industries. xApps typically have a smaller footprint than some of the company’s other business applications such as MySAP. xApp is the general term for applications based on the SAP ESOA, i.e. applications using SAP enterprise SOA services.
As of October 2006, SAP offered xApps targeted at Product lifecycle management, supply chain management, manufacturing intelligence and other areas.
Example xApps provided by SAP include:
SAP xApps are composite applications which can combine Web services and data from multiple systems. The application architecture is defined by the SAP Composite Application Framework within the SAP NetWeaver platform. The framework includes the methodology, tools, and run-time environment to develop composite applications. It provides a consistent object model and allows developers to build composite applications with a rich user interface, which can access multiple other heterogeneous applications via services.
Some xApps are relatively new additions to the SAP product offering and may thus be less tightly integrated with SAP’s common platforms such as NetWeaver. As a result, many xApps can be deployed by firms who do not currently run other SAP applications[citation needed].

Shooting of Joseph Erin Hamley

On March 7, 2006, Joseph Erin Hamley (February 3, 1985 – March 7, 2006), an unarmed man, was fatally shot by Arkansas State Trooper Larry P. Norman of West Fork, Arkansas. At 7 a.m. on March 7, 2006, Hamley, who suffered from cerebral palsy, was walking alone on U.S. Route 412, just outside the community of Tontitown along the Benton-Washington county line when several Washington County deputies surrounded him. Four minutes later, before being identified, and while lying on the ground, a shotgun slug fired by Norman, an Arkansas State Trooper breaking police protocol and procedure killed Hamley. The fatal shooting was recorded from multiple vantage points on dashboard cameras of the various police cruisers present.

After the negligent homicide, the Washington County Sheriffs Department and Arkansas State Police stated they believed the mentally disabled Joseph Erin Hamley to be Adam Lee Leadford whom they described as an escaped convict.
Joseph Erin Hamley stood 5 ft 10 in (1.78 m) and weighed 175 pounds (79 kg). Leadford was 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and 160 pounds (73 kg). Leadford, then 18, was a Michigan teenager who ran away from a court-sponsored boot camp, where he was sentenced for vandalizing school buses and then struggling with an officer while resisting arrest. An unarmed Leadford was later shot in the throat by Springdale Police and arrested in a parking lot of a Wal-Mart on the evening of Joseph Erin Hamley’s shooting death.
Director of Arkansas State Police Col. Steve Dozier stated at a press conference in Springdale, Arkansas on March 10, 2006 “Leadford had a .22 caliber rifle when he was stopped.” Leadford had abandoned the weapon in a vehicle, and it was not on his person when he was shot by Springdale police after walking through a Wal-Mart. He is now serving 30 years in an Arkansas state prison.
The Washington County Deputies and Arkansas State Troopers present at the scene remained silent concerning the shooting for the first three days, until the head of Arkansas State Police Col. Steve Dozier traveled to Springdale, Arkansas on March 10, 2006 to give a rare press conference. Dozier stated that he wanted to “reassure the public that a thorough investigation was under way” into the shooting that left a 21-year-old disabled man dead.
The director of Arkansas State Police addressed the media on the fatal police shooting with members of the Joseph Erin Hamley family in attendance. Col. Steve Dozier stated that the Arkansas State Trooper Larry Norman “‘likely had memories of a recent police killing’ when he shot and killed a mentally handicapped man mistaken for a Michigan ‘jail escapee’ known to be in the area.”
Dozier said officers likely remembered Gassville policeman Jim Sell, who was shot and killed Feb. 4, by a teenager (Jacob D. Robida) wanted in a hatchet-and-gun attack on a Massachusetts gay bar. “We also feel like, in the back of these officers’ minds, was the Mountain Home incident,” Dozier said. Dozier stated, “Hamley was built like, and looked like, Leadford.” He stated that “the officers ordered Hamley to lie down, and Hamley instead responded by putting his hands in his pockets and taking them out.” Colonel Steve Dozier stated, Hamley “began moving in a manner that these officers, at that point

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, interpreted as movement toward a weapon that they thought was likely concealed in his waist.” When Joseph Erin Hamley’s family started to ask questions concerning the length of time Larry Norman had been at the scene and if Joseph was asked his identity, officers at the news conference deflected the questions saying there would be a more appropriate time to discuss the matter with the Hamley family.
Head of Arkansas State Police Col. Steve Dozier resigned at the end of May, 2007 stating he was stepping down to go to work as vice president of corporate services for Wal-Mart Stores Inc. He retired one month before the final sentencing of Arkansas State Trooper Larry Norman for negligent homicide and the release of the Benton County special grand jury report with the police cruiser dash camera videos that followed.
The Arkansas State Police and Washington County Sheriff departments refused to release the dash cam videos of the incident until after Arkansas State Trooper Larry Norman was sentenced. The trial date was postponed twice, before Norman finally pleaded guilty. When released the video recordings from inside Norman’s cruiser clearly show he sped to the site, sometimes going over 100 mph, with his AM/FM radio blasting so loud he could not hear his police radio. By the time Norman arrived at the scene, Arkansas State Trooper Short and four Washington County Sheriff’s deputies had surrounded Hamley. They had their guns drawn and were taking defensive positions behind their cars. One officer mentioned that if he could get close enough to Hamley, he would use his Taser stun gun. Instead of blocking traffic as he was instructed to do, Arkansas State Trooper Larry Norman did a U-turn and pulled up about 25 yards from the young man and pulled out his shotgun.
Before making its decision, the panel of 16 jurors viewed videotaped interviews with officers who were at the scene of the shooting, including Norman, and viewed recordings from cameras installed on the squad cars. They also went to the site itself, along Highway 412, where cars were placed in the same positions and locations as the patrol cars were at the time of the shooting. A mannequin placed at the site represented Hamley’s body. They determined Hamley, who had cerebral palsy, followed officers’ instructions to get down on the ground, but laid down on his back instead of his stomach.
The Benton County Special Grand Jury found that possibly in an effort to comply with the trooper’s instructions to roll over, when Larry Norman directed Joseph Erin Hamley to turn over, Hamley reached across his body. That’s when Norman shot one time, the slug hitting the pavement, then striking Hamley’s arm and going into his body. When officers approached him, Hamley moaned, saying, “I’m sorry”. He then asked, “Why did you shoot me?”
The grand jury noted that Trooper Norman was on the scene for less than one minute when he shot Hamley, and that he “made no attempt to communicate with State Trooper Wilson Short or the Washington County Sheriff’s deputies” that had the situation under control. “We will note that we are extremely troubled by the lack of communication between the officers from the Arkansas State Police themselves and, too, with the Washington County Sheriff’s Deputies, who were on a scrambled radio frequency,” the grand jury concluded “as a result of their lack of communication, there was no coordinated plan of action between them. … We will also note that we are disturbed by the fact that there was no attempt to positively identify the subject prior to the shooting,” stated the grand jury, and they were “concerned that the officers’ microphones were either turned off or nonexistent, preventing recordings to be made of their conversations during and after the incident.” Several toy balls that were taken from Hamley’s pockets after he was fatally shot were also viewed by the grand jury.
On April 13, 2006, Norman was indicted by the grand jury on a charge of negligent homicide. On June 28, 2007, Norman pled guilty to the charge and was sentenced to 90 days in jail, 30 days of community service, one year of probation, and a $1,000 fine. Norman served 54 days of his jail sentence. The Arkansas State Police settled a lawsuit on March 5, 2007 with the victim’s family for one million dollars. Norman was later granted a full early medical retirement from the Arkansas State Police at the age of 40.
In May 2006, Arkansas State Police Sergeant and investigator in the fatal police shooting of Joseph Erin Hamley, Steve Coppinger stated that he saw no problem with sending an email to fellow troopers asking for donations to the legal defense fund of Arkansas State Trooper Larry Norman after he was appointed as the lead investigator in the case. Sergeant Coppinger told the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette ,”I don’t see a conflict at all.” Later that month, a department spokesperson with the Arkansas State Police said that “Coppinger is now being investigated to determine whether he violated department policy by sending the email on his police computer and workplace email account.”
After the shooting death, the Springdale City Council received a proposal to rename Grove Street Park the Joseph Erin Hamley Memorial Park in honor of Hamley, who spent a lot of time on a swing set in the park. The Arkansas State Police contacted the City Council stating that it would not be proper to rename the park while the investigation was still on-going. The Arkansas State Police later settled out of court with the victim’s family, and the Grove Street Park was not renamed.
The probate case files concerning the terms of the Arkansas State Police settlement with the Joseph Erin Hamley estate, which are normally open to the public, were sealed from the public by a judge in Washington County on Feb. 15, 2007.

St Nicholas Church, Deventer

The Mountain Church or Saint Nicholas Church (Dutch: Sint-Nicolaas- of Bergkerk) is a former place of worship in Deventer, Overijssel. This Romanesque basilica was built around 1209 and consecrated to Saint Nicholas. Centuries later it received some Late Gothic alterations. In 1580 the Dutch Reformed Church took the temple and renamed it the Mountain Church.
In 1967 the church was disestablished and its property transferred to the Municipality of Deventer. The building is used as an exhibition center and concert hall. From 1991 until 2005, the church was used for temporary exhibitions by Museum de Fundatie.

The Mountain Church was built between 1198 and 1209, near where the Deventer harbour section was at the time. It was founded in the golden age of the Hanseatic city. Its completion was dedicated to Saint Nicholas, the patron Saint of sailors, as the city Deventer took great advantage of their stratetic position on the River IJssel. The church has a lot of features in common with churches from around the Baltic Sea.
In the fifteenth century the Mountain Church underwent several renovations, which gave it a more late Gothic appearance. The two characteristic tower spires are built in that period. The lower part is still original.
In 1580 went over to the protestant church and all catholic features were removed from the interior, which was very common to do. The wall paintings were covered with white chalk.
There is a legend that describes how the building of the church came to be. Two sisters from Deventer, Martha and Beatrix, were heavily impressed by a knight who had came to Deventer. Both of them fancied the knight. Beatrix eventually married the knight, leaving Martha behind in solitude. Martha ordered the church to be built in peace with her loneliness

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, and let one of the two towers become slightly bigger than the other one, since both sisters were of different height too. This should explain the difference in height between the two towers. The tower on the west (on the right hand stand when you face it) is the biggest one.
“‘In remembrance of the love of my sister and me, I want a church to be built from my money on the mountain. Two towers will be built upon it, one a little bigger than the other, two children of one father alike and inseparable. So that will eternally remain the memory of our love and after our demise at any rate there be two towers that will not abandon one and another.”
Another legend of the west tower is that it was taken under siege in the seventeenth century, by pirates on the river IJssel. A big stone ball, which appears to be a stone cannonball, can still be seen, stuck inside the exterior of the tower.
Coordinates: 52°15′07″N 6°09′47″E / 52.25194°N 6.16306°E / 52.25194; 6.16306

Rebecca Schroeter

Rebecca (Scott) Schroeter (1751–1826) was an amateur musician who lived in London during the 18th and early 19th centuries. She was the wife of the German composer Johann Samuel Schroeter, and later, during her years of widowhood, a love interest of Joseph Haydn.

She was born 1751 (baptized 13 May) to Robert Scott, a wealthy Scottish businessman living in London, and his wife Elizabeth. Her father died in 1771, leaving Rebecca an annuity and the future sum of 15,000 pounds, contingent on her marrying with the approval of the executors of the will.
Some time in or before 1775, the family engaged the composer and pianist Johann Schroeter, an immigrant from Germany, as Rebecca’s music teacher. By 1775, Johann and Rebecca had fallen in love, and sought to be married—much against the family’s wishes. (Their objection hinged on matters of social class: they felt that Schroeter, a mere musical trademan, was not high enough on the social scale for the daughter of a wealthy family.) The marriage eventually did proceed (17 July 1775), but only with great difficulties. The family tried to get Schroeter to abandon the marriage by offering him the sum of £500, and they also attempted to deprive Rebecca of her £15,000 inheritance (it is not known whether the attempt succeeded.)
The marriage produced no children of which any record has survived. Schroeter continued his musical career but fell into poor health (perhaps, some said at the time, from excessive alcohol consumption). He died either 1 or 2 November 1788. Mrs. Schroeter continued to live in comfort at No. 6 James Street, Buckingham Gate, where she and her husband had moved in 1786.
Joseph Haydn, probably the most celebrated composer in Europe in his lifetime, traveled to England during 1791-1792 and 1794-1795, where he led highly successful concerts and composed a number of his best known works, including his last twelve symphonies. He resided in London for most of his stay.
On 29 June 1791, Rebecca Schroeter wrote Haydn a letter, inviting him to give her a music lesson:
Haydn accepted the invitation. This is the first of 22 letters from Mrs. Schroeter to Haydn, which are preserved not in the originals, but in copies made by Haydn in his so-called “second London notebook”.
The letters indicate that, just like 16 years earlier, Mrs. Schroeter fell in love with her music teacher. These feelings were evidently reciprocated. Biographer Albert Christoph Dies, who interviewed Haydn in his old age, wrote the following in his 1810 book about Haydn:
Dies probably garbled the story; in fact it was Haydn who was about 60 at the time; Mrs. Schroeter was only 40.
In saying that he was not “free at the time”, Haydn meant that he was married. His marriage to Maria Anna Keller in 1760 was apparently a disaster for both parties, and at that time divorce was forbidden by the church. Haydn was also in the breakup phase of a long-term relationship with the singer Luigia Polzelli, whom he had not brought to London with him.
The Schroeter letters express an ardent affection and are often very solicitous of Haydn’s welfare.
7 March 1792:
19 April 1792:
Mrs. Schroeter was also very supportive of Haydn’s career, telling him often how much she appreciated his music.
In the letter of 1 June 1792, biographers have attempted to restore a wording which in the notebook copy was first double-underlined, then heavily crossed out, presumably by Haydn himself. The passage begins:
The “xxxx” indicates the obliterated passage, which is a few words long. A few tails and extenders are visible below and above the obliteration. Inspecting these, H. C. Robbins Landon (1959, 283) and Bartha (1965, 522) read this as “and all (?night ?p.m.) with me,”; Scull (1997), citing additional evidence concerning Haydn’s handwriting, prefers the reading “and sleep with me”. The passage is (with minor exceptions) the only one which Haydn either double-underlined or obliterated.
Konrad Wolf (1958), examining the letters, notes that they were written with circumspection: “She had been careful … when writing them, for although she is very free with glowing affirmations of love, she never leaves any clues to her activities, circumstances, acquaintance circles, etc. that could identify her to anyone but the recipient.” Robbins Landon adds: “It is surprising that a love affair of these proportions, between the famous Haydn and a lady of London society, managed to escape the gossip hounds of the day; it must have been conducted very discreetly indeed.” Both Wolf and Robbins Landon suggest that the reason Haydn made copies of the letters was that Mrs

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. Schroeter had at some point asked him to return them to her.
There are no letters following Haydn’s departure to England in 1792. On his return in 1794, he rented lodgings at 1 Bury Street, about 10 minutes’ walk from Mrs. Schroeter’s residence, and biographers conjecture that he continued his relationship with her. The two never saw each other again after 1795, when Haydn departed permanently for his home in Austria.
It seems clear, however, that they parted as friends. Shortly before leaving England for the last time in 1795, Haydn wrote a set of three piano trios (H.XV:24-6), considered today by critics as outstanding, and dedicated them to Mrs. Schroeter.
In 1796, she helped Haydn with a business matter, signing (as a witness) a large-scale contract between Haydn and Frederick Augustus Hyde, a music publisher.
In 1800, when the self-published edition of Haydn’s famous oratorio The Creation appeared, Mrs. Schroeter’s name was on the list of subscribers. This is the last recorded contact, but the fact that Dies knew that Mrs. Schroeter was “still living” when he wrote his 1810 biography (see above) suggests that communication between Mrs. Schroeter and Haydn may have continued after 1800.
Mrs. Schroeter moved from the James Street house in either 1800 or 1801, was recorded as living in 11 Gloucester Place, Camden Town (part of London) in 1821, and died there at the age of 74 in 1826 (date unknown; burial 7 April).
The scanty available factual material on Schroeter’s life has been elaborated into a book-length work by Peter Hobson: The Girl in Rose: Haydn’s Last Love. (2004, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson). For reviews, see , .

Arnold Belkin

Arnold Belkin (December 9, 1930 – July 3, 1992) was a Canadian-born Jewish-Mexican painter credited for continuing the Mexican muralism tradition at a time when many Mexican painters were shifting away from it. Born and raised in western Canada, he trained as an artist there but was not drawn to traditional Canadian art. Instead he was inspired by images of Diego Rivera’s work in a magazine to move to Mexico when he was only eighteen. He studied further in Mexico, focusing his education and his career mostly on murals, creating a type of work he called a “portable mural” as a way to adapt it to new architectural style. He also had a successful career creating canvas works as well with several notable series of paintings. He spent most of his life and career in Mexico except for a stay in New York City in the late 1960s to mid-1970s. His best known works are the murals he created for the University Autónoma Metropolitana in the Iztapalapa borough of Mexico City.

Belkin was born on December 9, 1930 with the name Arnold Lewis Belken Greenberg in Calgary, Alberta. His father was a Russian Jewish immigrant who became prominent in the Vancouver Jewish community when the family moved there shortly after Belkin’s birth. His mother was an English Jewish immigrant.
He began drawing and painting at an early age. His parents were socialist, which would affect his later artwork, giving him an harshal in social issues and the rights of the underprivileged. He began formal art training at the Vancouver School of Art, studying there from 1945 to 1947. At age 15, Belkin won first place an art contest with the Labor Arts Guild in British Columbia with the painting “Workers on a Streetcar.” From 1947 to 1948 he studied at the Banff School of Fine Arts. During his training, Belkin was not drawn to traditional Canadian painting which was heavily focused on landscapes. At age 14 he discovered the work of Diego Rivera and Mexican muralism from Time magazine. He discovery of contemporary Mexican art made a great impact and in 1948 at the age of eighteen, he left Canada to move to Mexico. He enrolled into the Escuela Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado “La Esmeralda” from 1948 to 1949, studying with Agustín Lazo, Carlos Orozco Romero and Andrés Sánchez Flores. In Mexico City, he was surrounded by the mural work of the first half of the 20th century, with its emphasis on class struggle and oppression. At La Esmeralda, he focused on this kind of painting, being influenced by the work of José Clemente Orozco, Rico Lebrun and Leonard Baskin.
In 1950 he traveled to various parts of Mexico, especially the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. From this trip, he wrote a script for a radio documentary on the region’s music, customs and legends, produced by Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
In the same year, he met David Alfaro Siqueiros, forming both a personal and professional relationship. He was an assistant on two murals from that time Patricios y Patricidas at the former customs building in Santo Domingo along with the Cuauhtémoc mural at the Palacio de Bellas Artes from 1950 to 1951. The experience not only influence his style but also taught him the level of quality expected in Mexican muralism. In the early 1950s he joined the Taller de Ensayo de Materiales y Plásticos run by Prof. José L. Gutíerrez at the Instituto Politecnico Nacional, participating in the creation of various collective murals.
From 1954 to 1956, he studied engraving in metal with Lola Cueto at Mexico City College and lithography from the Escuela de Artes del Libro with Pedro Castelar Baez.
He also participated in the workshop of Guillermo Silva Santamaría where he met Francisco Icaza and Leonel Góngora.
Beltran spent most of the rest of his life in Mexico, except for a trip to Europe and a number of years spent in New York City in the 1970s, connecting with American painters such as Omar Rayo, Rudolph Abularach, César Paternosto and Rubens Gerchman . For Expo 67 in Montreal, he represented Mexico rather than Canada. He returned to Mexico to stay in 1976, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1981.
He was married once, to dancer Esperanza Gómez with whom he had two daughters. After they divorced, he had numerous relationships but did not remarry or have more children. At the time of his death, his partner was Patricia Quijano, and he had one grandchild.
Belkin died in Mexico City on July 3, 1992 from lung cancer at age 61. He was buried at the Panteón Judio in Mexico City with honors.
Belkin’s career spanned more than three decades, during which time he produced 28 major public murals, various smaller ones, with about ninety individual exhibitions and over fifty collective ones in Mexico and abroad and designed sets and costumes for forty Mexican stage productions, as well as other activities.
After graduating from La Esmeralda, Belkin began to work at the Taller de Ensayo de Materiales y Plasticos belonging to José L. Gutierrez. With this group he worked on various collective murals as well as his first individual mural called ¡El pueblo no quiere la guerra! in 1950, a fresco painted at the Instituto Politécnico Nacional, since destroyed.
During the rest of the decade, he painted a number of murals in various parts of the country. In 1952 he painted Canto a la tierra, several fresco panels based on poems by Nezahualcoyotl at the Banco de Monterrey. In 1956 he painted La bahía de Acapulco at the Hotel Continental Hilton in Mexico City which was destroyed by the 1985 earthquake. In the same year, he painted Figuras de Tlatilco at a private home in Xalapa, Veracruz. In 1957 he painted the mural Escenas de Don Quijote at the La Casa de Piedra in Cuernavaca.
From 1960 to 1961 he painted a mural on a federal prison in Mexico City called Todos somos culpables. This tells the story of a criminal committing crime, getting caught and punished but from a social worker point of view rather than a law-and-order one. In 1963 he painted a mural at the Centro Pedagóogico Infantil called A nuestra generación corresponde decidir. However, it was later painted over by the director of Child Services, wife of President Adolfo López Mateos because it was considered to be “too sad.” In 1966 he created the mural Las festivades judías for the Kehila Ashkenazi in Mexico City.
From the late 1960s to mid-1970s, Belkin lived and worked in New York City. One major mural done here was a wall in Hell’s Kitchen measuring almost 40,000 square feet from 1972 to 1973. To complete the extremely large project, he enlisted help from anyone willing to be taught. The result was Against Domestic Colonialism belonging not only to the artist but the community. Over the decades, this mural has escaped most of the graffiti that covers most other surfaces in the area. He painted a number of other murals in the New York City area. In 1971 he was artist-in-residence at the Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania. He also painted Epimiteo on the cafeteria walls of Dumont High School in New Jersey in 1973.
When he returned to Mexico, he continued to paint murals. From 1978 to 1979 he created La migración sefardí en México at the Centro Social Monte Sinaí in Mexico City. In 1981 he painted A través de la technología for the Colegio de Ingenieros Mecánicos y Electricistas.
In the 1980s he worked on a series of works for the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana in Iztapalapa. It is this work for which he is best known. The murals total six : El hombre y el cosmos, Genesis de un nuevo orden(1988), Omniciencia (1984), Imagenes de nuestros dias, Una utopia posible (1983-1984), Muerte de la ignorancia and Transformacion de la sociedad (1986), as well as a number of sculptures. He became the artist-in-residence for the institution in 1983 and starting painting the Teatro del Fuego Nuevo as part of a course he taught there, finishing in 1984. He finished the last mural in 1988 on Building E after painting the library and the social sciences building.
During this period, he also painted from 1985 to 1986 the mural Identidad y futuro the Colegio Madrid. This work depicts the Spanish Civil War and the Republican exiles that arrived to Mexico.
In 1987 he traveled to Managua, Nicaragua to paint Los prometeos on the Palacio Nacional Héroes y Mártires de la Revolución. The mural features Emiliano Zapata, Augusto César Sandino and Prometheus, with the two revolutionaries being compared to the mythical Greek figure who brought fire to man.
At the end of the 1980s, he became interested in reinterpreting the discovery of the Americas by the Europeans resulting in murals called Descubrimiento y conquista del Nuevo Mundo (1988-1989) at the Biblioteca Pública de Popotla and 1492 (1991). This would be his last major work.
In addition to more traditional works, Belkin created what he called “portal murals,” large scale paintings which can be moved and adapted as a way to deal with changing architectural tastes such as lower walls and the use of prefabricated panels. He created ten major pieces of this type of work. The first of these was in 1959 called the Levanamiento del Ghetto de Varsovia or Warsaw Ghetto Uprising which was later acquired by the Vancouver Jewish Community Center. These were followed later by Massacre at Kent State in 1970 (1974), The My Lai Massacre in 1976 and Los hermanos Serdán: la lucha continúa, which was acquired by the state of Puebla for the Casa de los hermanos Serdán. Another major piece from the 1970s was for the Museo Nacional de Historia called La llegada de los generals Zapata y Villa al Palacio Nacional el 6 diciembre de 1914. In 1986 he created the portable mural called La vocación de la maestra Magdalena and in 1990 he did Inventando el futuro for the engineering school at UNAM.
At various points in his career, Belkin was a professor and teacher, mostly related to mural work. In 1956 he began teaching mural painting at the Universidad de las Americas. From 1971 to 1972 he gave painting classes at the New School for Social Research and The Art Students League in New York City. From 1972 to 1973 he was a guest lecturer at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. In the later 1970s to the 1980s he taught various workshops in Mexico resulting in collective murals done by students

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. These include a mural to journalist Francisco Zarco at Callejón Francisco Zarco (1977), a mural called La historia del movimiento obrero at Parque Juventino Rosas in the Magdalena Contreras borough and Raíces de las flores Nelhuayotl on the borough hall of Xochimilco all in Mexico City done by students from ENAP. From 1983 to 1984, he gave a course about the uses of photography in paintings at the Museo Universitario del Chopo.
In addition to murals, Belkin also created a large number of canvas works with which he had success in exhibitions. His first individual exhibition was at the Instituto Cultural Anglo-Mexicano sponsored by the Canadian Embassy in 1952, with the introduction written by David Alfaro Siqueiros.- This was followed by other individual exhibitions in Mexico along with exhibitions in Vancouver and Calgary in 1953m, 1958 and 1959. In 1960 he exhibited at the Academy of San Carlos. His first exhibition in the United States was at the Zora Gallery in Los Angeles in 1961. Along with Siqueiros, Icaza and Tamayo and his was invited to represent Mexico at the International Award Exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. In 1966, he participated in the group show Confrontación 66 organized by the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes at the Palacio de Bellas Artes.
His fame increased in the 1970s with exhibitions in the United States, Venezuela, Colombia and Cuba. Belkin’s easel paintings also enjoyed much success during his time in New York. In 1970 he began a series of sixteen paintings related to the death of physicist and politician Juan Pablo Marat. These were exhibited at the Lerner-Heller Gallery in New York in 1972. From 1972 to 1975 he had various individual exhibitions in Detroit, Houston, Atlanta, Dayton, Phoenix and San Juan, Puerto Rico.
In 1974 he began a series of paintings called Historic Battles, considered to be some of his best canvas work. It is a series of large scale paintings, including Massacre at Kent State, My Lai Massacre and the Military Coup in Chile of 1973. While many are of contemporary topics, they also included paraphrases of compositions by masters of European art of past centuries such as Nicolas Poussin’s The Rape of the Sabines. However all deal with the violence of armed men during war against the defenseless. He also painted images of the future and of utopia, such as Armoured Figure done in New York. This one is a warning against technology enslaving the human spirit. In 1977 he had an individual exhibition at the Museo de Bellas Artes in Caracas, Venezuela. In 1979, he was invited by the Cuban government to do an individual exhibition at the Casa de las Américas of his work during the 1970s. This included some of his portable murals.
His other major series of paintings is dedicated to Emiliano Zapata, started in 1979. These works are a kind of documentary based on photographs and other visual references to the Mexican Revolution figure. They include works done in pencil, ink and crayon and served as sketches for larger works about Zapata later in his career.
From 1981 to 1982 he worked on a series of drawings and paintings called Los amantes based on love poems by Mario Benedetti. The series also included photographs by Rafael Doniz of lovers embracing in the middle of scenes of social conflict. From 1985 to 1986 he created the Lucio Cabañas series, which are large scale drawings on amate paper which feature the revolutionary along with Sandino and Pedro Albizu Campos. The triptych Tlatelolco, lugar del sacrificio (1989) ties the events of 1521, 1968 and 1985. In 1982 he had an individual exhibition at the Museo de Arte Moderno. In 1983 he presented an exhibition of drawings from 1957 to 1983 at the Casa del Lago.
In the first half of the 1950s, Belkin became interested in music, dance and theatre. From 1951 to 1954 he drew dancers and began to design sets and costumes for various ballets such as Tierra by Elena Noriega, El muñeco y los hombrecillos, El debate and Advenimiento de la luz by Xavier Francis. From 1955 to 1960 he did set design for Seki Sano, Héctor Mendoza and Luis de Tavira for productions such as Cinco preciosidades francesas and El Décimo hombre. In 1966 he created the set of the work Don Gel de las calzas verdes by Tirso de Molina, directed by Héctor Mendoza. In 1982 he created the set for Lances de amor y fortuna by Pedro Calderón de la Barca directed by Luis de Tavira. In 1983 he created the set for El destierro by Juan Tovar, directed by José Caballero. In 1983 he designed the wardrobe, set and lighting for the work Herejía by Sabina Berman directed by Abraham Oceransky, which received the Premio Nacional de Teatro in the same year. In 1984 he designed the set for Los dos hermanos by Felipe Santander.
His engraving work is not very well known but it has been exhibited and has received awards. In 1972 his work was recognized at the II Bienal Latinoamericana de Grabado in San Juan. In 1987 he created five engravings called Los conquistadores which became part of the El Inicio de Nueva España display at the Museo Nacional de Antropología e Historia. After his death, his work featured in an exhibition called Arte Gráfico Latinoamericano (1970-1980)” at the state government building in Villahermosa, Tabasco, as well as an exhibition at the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla in 2011.
In 1961 he formed the Grupo de Interioristas along with Francisco Icaza, which was concerned with the Cold War and commercialism with the widespread use of plastic. The group focused on creating monochromatic images which became their trademark. The name Interioristas was coined by art critic Selden Rodman. In 1961 he co-authored the manifesto Nueva Presencia:el hombre en el arte de nuestro tiempo with Francisco Icaza, which was against so-called bourgeois art and academic art of “good taste” in favor of that with political and social messages. This led to the formation of the group Nueva Presencia with included Leonel Góngora, Francisco Corzas, José Muñoz Medina, Artemio Sepulveda, Rafael Coronel and Nacho López. From 1967 to 1968 he created the Museo Latinoamericano with Omar Rayo, Leonel Góngora, Abularach, Paternosto, Gerchman and others because he was unhappy with attitudes towards Latin American shown by the Center for Inter-American Relations. The idea the museum was that Latin American artists were better able to present the art and culture of the region more than capitalists from the United States. He also founded the Taller del Muralismo Comunitario in 1978.
He published a catalog of lithographs called Two with poems by Jack Hirschman published by Zora Gallery in 1963. In 1987 he published a book called Contra la amnesia: textos 1960-1985.
He created postcards at various points in his life included one in 1966 for the Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes featuring Eolo, Greek goddess of wind, one in 1981 for the Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores to honor the bicentennial of the birth of Simón Bolívar and one in 1988 for the Mexican postal service with a portrait of César Vallejo.
He also did a few sculptures which include a large scale one in 1981 called El Estudiante for the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa and one in 1986 for the Jardín Escultórico at the Bosque Lázaro Cárdenas in Morelia.
In 1988 he created the cover to the social science textbook for public schools in Mexico.
In 1960 he received an award from the Asociación de Críticos Teatrales for best scene design for his work on Terror y miserias del III Reich by Bertolt Brecht. El hombre si tiene future (homenaje a Bertrand Russell) won the Adquisición del Salón de Pintura prize in 1963. Also in 1963, he received an honorary mention at the Casa de las Américas for a catalogue of lithographs he made in Los Angeles. In 1982 the mural Traición y muerte de Zapata and El asesinato de Rubén Jaramillo y su familia mayo 22 de 1962 won the Winfred Lam Grand Prize at the I Bienal in Havana, Cuba. He keynoted the III Coloquio Latinoamericano de Fotografía in Havana talking about his experience using photography in his art. In 1986 there was a retrospective of his mural work at the Galería Metropolitana in Mexico City. In 1987 UNAM published a book about the artist.
There have been a number of posthumous retrospectives and other exhibitions of his work including the 1997 the exhibition at the Museo Mural Diego Rivera and was honored at an event at the Museo Universitario del Chopo in 1998.
Arnold Belkin has been referred to as the “Canadian son of Mexican muralism.” He is best known for his murals such as those at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana in Iztapalapa. There are thirty murals of the artist still in existence in Mexico, Nicaragua and the United States. He is credited with continuing the Mexican muralism tradition in the mid-20th century when the Generación de la Ruptura headed by artists like José Luis Cuevas and Rafael Coronel were taking the Mexican art scene away from muralism and its Marxist tendencies. Most of his murals are in public and educational spaces keeping the tradition of murals as a way to communicate with the masses and the following generations keeping murals an important part of Mexican culture. From the muralist generation, Belkin not only learned traditional painting techniques but also new ones, influenced by the work of Siqueiros. This included painting with air brushes and creating images using photographs projected on a wall as a base.
His works are characterized in the use of intense, dark and often ochre colors in the entire work depicting the human body as central along with geometric figures. They often aim to tie the past with the present with themes such as war, peace, death, injustice and exile. He believed that art should serve as a teaching tool and to spark political discourse, often presenting humanity’s most controversial and painful experiences. He generally did not produce works merely for aesthetics. He painted historical scenes, never allegory and although his work was influenced by the socialist ideals of his parents, his heroes were those of Latin America, not Canada. These heroes included the Serdán brothers, Francisco Villa, Emiliano Zapata, Francisco I. Madero, Lucio Cabañas, Simón Bolívar and even Christopher Columbus. He did paint some other subjects, for example in the 1970s he created pieces criticizing the automatization of modern life, depicting men as robots.
His work went through a number of phases. His early paintings starting in the early 1950s were focused on popular traditions in Mexico, especially those related to death such as Entierro in 1952. He was influenced by Rico Lebrun who visited Mexico in the 1960s resulting in works which were monochromatic emphasizing the use of grays, sepias, ochres and black. Two notable works of this type are Resurrección in 1960 and Presagio y Seres terrestres in 1961.In the mid-1960s he experimented with abstract art with all forms being distorted. Works from this period include Paisaje interior (1964), Imagen humana (1965) and Los colores del día son los que te visten, el resto es silencio (1966). In the late 1960s his work featured figures surrounded by circles and ovals,which include El eclipse (1968), Progresión II (1969) and Language-system (1970). In 1968 he visited to Europe, where his work acquired a more dynamic character, even denouncing his previous static work. Europe’s old masters also inspired a series called Historic battles which were reinterpretations of classic works. His work took on a strong ochre tone in the 1970s when he began to work in oils and sculpture. focused on human emotions such as loneliness, desperation, abandonment and misery.

1996–97 Primera B Nacional

The 1996-97 Argentine Primera B Nacional was the 11º season of second division professional of football in Argentina. A total of 32 teams competed; the champion and runner-up were promoted to Argentine Primera División.

A tiebreaker was played between the teams that finished 4º in their respective zones. For the Interior Zone played Olimpo vs Instituto and for the Metropolitana Zone played Central Córdoba (R) vs Nueva Chicago. Both matches were played in neutral stadiums. The winning teams qualified for the Championship Group

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The championship Group was played by the 14 teams that qualified from their zones and the 2 teams that qualified by winning the Fourth Place Playoff. The winning team was declared champion and was automatically promoted to Primera Division, and the teams placed 2º to 5º played the Second Promotion Playoff.
1: 3 points deducted.
2: 4 points deducted.
It was divided in 2 groups (Interior and Metropolitana). 9 teams played in each group. Teams placed 1º and 2º qualified for the Second Promotion Playoff.
The Second Promotion playoff was played by the teams placed 2º to 5º from the Championship Group and 4 teams (2 from Interior Group and 2 from Metropolitano Group) from the Relegation Group. The winning team was promoted to Primera Division.
Note: Clubs with indirect affiliation with AFA are relegated to the Torneo Argentino A, while clubs directly affiliated face relegation to Primera B Metropolitana. Clubs with direct affiliation are all from Greater Buenos Aires, with the exception of Newell’s, Rosario Central, Central Córdoba and Argentino de Rosario, all from Rosario, and Unión and Colón from Santa Fe.

Inula hirta

Inula hirta is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the genus Inula of the Asteraceae family. The specific Latin name hirta refers to the type of hairiness (bristly and rough) of the plant.

Inula hirta reaches an height of 20–40 centimetres (7.9–15

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.7 in). The stem is ascending, simple (unbranched) and cylindrical, the surface is striped and hairy. These plants are covered with stiff hairs, almost bristly and light in color. The underground portion consists of an oblique rhizome not too big of a light color. Average size of the rhizome: width 2 millimetres (0.079 in), length 25 millimetres (0.98 in).
All the leaves along the stem (cauline) are alternately arranged, irregularly toothed, erect, tomentose on both sides and hairy on the edge. They are usually laminar, leathery and rough. The base is rounded and the apex is obtuse. The average size of the leaves varies from 15–20 millimetres (0.59–0.79 in) of width to a length of 40–50 millimetres (1.6–2.0 in). Lower leaves have an elliptical or elliptical-lanceolate shape and have a thin petiole. Their size is more or less similar to the cauline one. Upper leaves are sessile, amplexicaul (their base is embracing the stem) and more lanceolate.
The flowers are hermaphrodite The outer flowers are ligulate, bright yellow and feminine, while the inner ones are tubular, dark yellow and bisexual. The diameter of the flower varies from 35–50 millimetres (1.4–2.0 in). The flowering period extends from May through late September. The fruits are glabrous achenes with hairy appendages (pappus).
This plant is distributed on Alps, Vosges, Jura Mountains, Pyrenees, Carpathian Mountains, Dinaric Alps, and Balkan Mountains. In the European plains this plant is widespread in southern France and through the Balkan Peninsula to the Caucasus and southern Russia.
This plant prefers dry meadows and pastures of hills and mountains. They can be found up to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) above sea level.